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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infection in Pakistan



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Pakistan still has a window of opportunity to act decisively to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. According to UNAIDS estimates HIV prevalence is 0.1 percent among adult population in Pakistan. The officially reported cases are, however, much lower than the estimated cases. As in many countries, underreporting is due mainly to the social stigma attached to the infection, limited surveillance and voluntary counseling and testing systems, as well as the lack of knowledge among the general population and health practitioners. Until recently, Pakistan was classified as a low-prevalence country with many risk factors that could lead to the rapid development of an epidemic. The presence of significant risk factors such as the very low use of condoms among vulnerable populations including female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSMs), truckers, and Hijras, low use of sterile syringes among injecting drug users (IDUs), inadequate blood transfusion screening and high level of professional donors, large numbers of migrants and refugees may lead to an epidemic situation of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan.






Pakistan still has a window of opportunity to act decisively to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. According to UNAIDS estimates HIV prevalence is 0.1 percent among adult population in Pakistan. The officially reported cases are, however, much lower than the estimated cases. As in many countries, underreporting is due mainly to the social stigma attached to the infection, limited surveillance and voluntary counseling and testing systems, as well as the lack of knowledge among the general population and health practitioners. Until recently, Pakistan was classified as a low-prevalence country with many risk factors that could lead to the rapid development of an epidemic. The presence of significant risk factors such as the very low use of condoms among vulnerable populations including female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSMs), truckers, and Hijras, low use of sterile syringes among injecting drug users (IDUs), inadequate blood transfusion screening and high level of professional donors, large numbers of migrants and refugees may lead to an epidemic situation of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan.


Although diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in the United States are declining an HIV outbreak among such persons in rural Indiana demonstrated that populations vulnerability to HIV infection 1. It is the heartland for the political party that has been ruling the province since 2008. Following initial infection a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience a brief period of influenzalike illness. Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIVInfection in Pakistan Bukhari S Zahid Hussain Qazi Javed Iqbal Amazon.sg Books. A patient with human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection has been admitted with pneumonia.


Szahid

Human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection is the most significant predisposing condition but persons with other immunodeficiency states as well as phenotypically normal persons develop cryptococcosis. using protective practices and personal protective equipment to prevent transmission of HIV and other bloodborne infections protects patients as well as healthcare. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among the. three members of a family husband wife and a child in Karachi Pakistan. Although the overall prevalence is still less than 1 in the adult population the latest estimate 2017 of people living with HIV PLHIV was 150000 2. The overall . 41 Antibody titers can be higher. We have documented evidence of the human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection in four individuals including a blood donor and three members of a family husband wife and a child in Karachi Pa. Infection with HIV occurs by transfer of blood semen and breast milk. by S Yaqub 2019 Cited by 1 . development of . It has taken the form of a concentrated epidemic in two high risk groups namely injection drug users and males who have sex with males. by I Haq 2020 Cited by 3 Human immunodeficiency virus HIV is a retrovirus that infects human .


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